Enter The World of Mass Media is an outcome of the author's interactions with numerous readers and Mass Communication enthusiasts all over the nation regarding the need of a good resource book on the subject. Essentially all encompassing, the book does not merely go through the different aspects of Mass Communication, but also sets standards for the future.
This book with the help of some of the best known minds in the field of Mass Communication, Marketing and Information Technologies, seeks to set forward, for the first time in India, a germinating set of standards, norms and ethics to be followed on the Internet.
Enter The World of Mass Media thus also sets out to lay grounds for the future of Mass Communication.
A reader, after going through this book, will not only have an understanding of the subject, but coupled with his own added insights, he would also be capable of being a transforming force in the field.
About the Author(s)
Barun Roy has brought forth the essence of journalism to the core in this book. Presently, he is functioning as the Head of Department of Mass Communication in Southfield College, Darjeeling. He is also at the helm of affairs working as the Chief Editor for Darjeeling Times.
His own blog site, The Himalayan Beacon, is quite popular in North-eastern India. It has already gained mass appeal with a daily readership of 3 lakh and 40 thousand people. Also a columnist in his own right, Barun Roy contributes to Business Standard and Business World.
He has also represented India in the South Asian Journalism Forum held in Kathmandu and Manila. He has two other printed titles to his credit and has received various honours and accolades.
Brief History of Mass Media
A Brief History of Print Media
The First Modern Newspapers
The Advent of Telegraph
The British Indian Empire
A Brief History of Radio Broadcasting
Types of Radio Broadcasting
The Evolution of FM Broadcasting
All India Radio - A Case Study
Yuva Vani - The Voice of the Youth
A Brief History of Television Broadcasting
First Television Broadcasting
Television in India
CAS – Conditional Access System
Doordarshan – A Case Study
Internet: What it is and the Future it Holds?
The World Wide Web
Internet as an Instrument of Mass Communication
The World of Mass Communication
Communication - What does it Involve?
Models of Communication
Communication and Mass Communication
Power and Responsibilities of the Press
What Regulates the Press?
Civil and Criminal Libel
The Author’s Defences
What Regulates the Press besides Libel?
What does News imply?
How to Judge News?
Today’s Heterogeneous Audience
How New must News be?
Who is a Reporter?
How do Reporters Work?
The ‘Inquiring Reporter’
The Editor and his News Desk
Making the News Meaningful
How to write a News Story?
Important Things to Remember while Writing for a Newspaper
Recorded Broadcasts and Live Broadcasts
Broadcast Safe Standard Definition Video
Recording Studios and Radio Studios
Digital Audio Workstations
Audio Theatre Today
What is the Internet?
Is there a place for Ethics?
The Yahoo Case Study
(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
Internet – What It is and the Future it Holds… The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using the standardised Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a ‘network of networks’ that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fibre-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries various information resources and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and the interlinked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Terminology The terms ‘Internet’ and ‘World Wide Web’ are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. Genesis A 1946 comic science-fiction story, A Logic Named Joe, by Murray Leinster laid out the Internet and many of its strengths and weaknesses. However, it took more than a decade before reality began to catch up with this vision. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957, he became the Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing. At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran, who had written an exhaustive study for the US Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between UCLA and SRI International in Menlo Park, California, on October 29, 1969. The ARPANET was one of the ‘eve’ networks of today’s Internet. Following on from the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service. In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Stream Service (IPSS), in 1978. The collection of X.25-based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981. The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around 1976. X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. Use of the term ‘Internet’ to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University. During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems. The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was operational by January 1, 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols. In 1985, the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of the NSFNET, a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called ‘fuzzballs’ by their inventor, David L. Mills. The following year, NSF sponsored the conversion to a higher-speed 1.5 megabit/second network. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made by Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer programme at NSF. The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988. The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic email services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet Service Providers (ISP) were created: UUNET, PSINET and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the US that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems, Proteon and Juniper, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local-area networking and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating system. Growth Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost a decade, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On August 6, 1991, CERN, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland, publicised the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. By 1996, usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web. Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997. This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Today’s Internet Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. As of March 31, 2008 1.407 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Statistics.